Genetic matching or genetic compatibility test (GCT)
Planning and prevention are crucial for preventing the transmission of genetic diseases.
What is it?
The “genetic matching” is a study performed on the progenitors and analyzes their genes to identify mutations responsible for recessive diseases and linked to the X chromosome. First an individual screening of each one is made and then the information is crossed to see if there are coincidences in the mutations.
This technique allows for valuable information that will serve to minimize the risk of the future child inheriting a serious disease.
What does it consist of?
It is a very simple test which consists in extracting a blood sample from each parent to analyze the cellular DNA in search of mutations.
The most prevalent autosomal recessive genetic diseases are studied.
All panels include the analysis of Cystic Fibrosis, Fragile X, Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Duchenne/Becker Muscular Dystrophy, and Congenital Deafness. NGS analysis and any necessary complementary analyses.
The carrier test is present in two versions based on the number of genes analyzed:
- Next Carrier Standard analyzes 312 genes
- Next Carrier Complete analyzes 607 genes
What does genetic matching allow?
The main goal is to reduce the chances that the future baby will be born with some genetic diseases.
It’s important to understand that almost all people, even if we don’t know, are carriers of genetic mutations. But depending on how we inherit the altered gene, the mutation may go unnoticed or cause a disease.
There are two types of inheritance:
- Autosomal dominant inheritance: when the disease manifests, even if only one altered copy of the gene has been inherited from either the mother or the father.
- Autosomal recessive inheritance: to develop the disease it is necessary to have inherited both altered copies, both the father and the mother.
In the case that only an altered copy of a gene with recessive inheritance has been inherited, the person will not suffer the disease, he will only be a carrier, although he can also transmit the mutation to his offspring.
When two gametes of people who are carriers of the same mutation are fertilized, there is a 25% chance of having a child with that disease.